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By Plato, Gregory Vlastos

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145 Laws, 662B. , 392A-B; Laws, 663B. , 483 ff. Cf. , I 77C-D. , 5IOD; Laws, 662E. I 49 Socrates in the first instance puts forth j ust enough dialectical strength to bafRe a Callicles or a ThrasymaChUS. 150 This, as we have seen, is the quality of much of the argument of the Gorgias,151 though it is intermingled with hints of deeper things, and supplemented by noble eloquence. In the Republic, however, Plato undertakes not only to confute and silence, but to convince. 152 The real ground of conviction is the total underlying conception of the true nature, harmony, health, and consequent happiness of the soul.

76,80-81, 140-141, 1S3-1S4. , 521A. A Fallacy in Plato's Republic 45 that he establish-that justice is good for its own sake or good in itself, and injustice evil in itself. Plato, I contended, characterized justice and injustice in these ways because he thought that on their own-or by themselves-they effect the soul's greatest good and greatest evil; this being due, Plato believed, to the powers which they inevitably exert upon the souls in which they are present. I further claimed that, on Plato's view, justice or i~ustice-one or the other but not both-must exist in every soul, and that the man in whose soul justice exists will be happier than a man whose soul includes any degree of injustice, happiness varying inversely with injustice.

150 This, as we have seen, is the quality of much of the argument of the Gorgias,151 though it is intermingled with hints of deeper things, and supplemented by noble eloquence. In the Republic, however, Plato undertakes not only to confute and silence, but to convince. 152 The real ground of conviction is the total underlying conception of the true nature, harmony, health, and consequent happiness of the soul. But the formal proof is summed up in the ninth book in three arguments which, as Plato repeatedly te11s us, constitute the framework of the whole design.

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