Download Gemstones by Michael O’Donoghue (auth.) PDF

By Michael O’Donoghue (auth.)

Gemstones is the 1st try in English to compile the geological, mineralogical and gemmological advancements that experience taken position over the past thirty years. although there were many gemstone books released in that point, so much were involved, understandably and rightly, with the technological know-how of gem trying out and feature lined that region rather well. information of the geological incidence of a few of the vintage gem stones, and of approximately all these that have only in the near past been stumbled on, were much less thoroughly handled. assurance has been constrained to a few papers in a large choice of geological and mineralogical journals. gems hopes to get the stability correct. within the education of the booklet all of the journals and monographs within the box were consulted in order that the publication may still stand for a few years because the authority to which gemmologists and others flip within the first example. Ease of reference and intensity of insurance make gem stones either a reference e-book and a bench booklet. Acknow ledgements i'm thankful to Brian Jackson of the dep. of Geology, Royal Museums of Scotland who learn the manuscript and painstakingly indicated locations the place modification or alteration was once wanted. i'm additionally thankful to the publishers of the books on which the road illustrations are established. the color plates found in the e-book derive from a few resources, which i want to recognize as follows. Plates 1, 4-15 and 17 Crown copyright reserved.

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The system in current use groups minerals by their anions (simple or complex). The mineral groups from which most gemstones are formed include silicates, oxides and carbonates. In silicates, silicon combines with oxygen to form the tetrahedral complex anion (SiO 4)4-. The tetrahedra can join to form rings, chains, sheets, frameworks or other structures. In the olivine group and in the garnets the tetrahedra are independent and the Si0 4 groups are linked by interspersed cations. Crystals with this structure are usually dense and hard.

This may be due to some eccentricity of polishing - coated stones are unlikely to give a response and this coating (which has a different RI from that of the main body of the stone) can often be removed with jeweller's rouge (powdered hematite). Real and apparent depths Where a microscope with calibrated fine focus adjustment is available the direct measurement of refractive index is possible. The microscope should be monocular.

Crystals are pyroelectric for this reason. Quartz: crystals belong to a low symmetry class of the trigonal system and have neither planes nor a centre of symmetry. Prism and rhombohedral forms are found; the prism faces being horizontally striated (a useful identification feature) and terminated by a combination of positive and negative rhombohedrons which may be equally developed so that the crystal may be mistaken for a hexagonal dipyramid. The tetrahedral unit cells of the quartz are arranged in a helical way, spiralling to the left in some crystals and to the right in others.

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