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By Peter G. Read

When you consider that Gemmology used to be first released, hundreds of thousands of readers have used it to achieve an in-depth appreciation of the technological know-how of gemmology, its background and perform. This 3rd version has been revised to hide, particularly, This 3rd version has been revised to hide, particularly, new HPHT diamond enhancement tools and beryllium lattice diffusions concepts for corundum in addition to the low strain hot temperature CVD synthesis of thick movie diamond

It comprises info of the Gemmological institutions lately brought beginning path, and offers exam notes.

* comprises crucial info for the Gem-A exams
* absolutely up to date to hide contemporary advances and instruments
* a useful source for gemmologists world wide

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Equally important are the diamond mines in the Siberian plateau of the Confederation of Independent States (CIS, formerly the USSR), in the People’s Republic of China and in Australia. Although historically India was the first source of diamonds, followed by Brazil, both of these countries are now only minor sources of the gem. 6 The main diamond mines of Namibia, Botswana and South Africa In the Argyle mine in Western Australia, the transport rock magma has a different composition to the kimberlite in which diamonds are found in southern Africa and is called lamproite.

This results in the formation of large, very strong sheets of carbon ‘chicken wire’ which are only weakly bonded together and which easily cleave or slip one against the other. Like diamond, quartz is another gem mineral formed by covalent bonding. In general, however, minerals seldom contain bonds which are solely ionic or covalent, and there is often a transition between both types of bond. Oxygen, for example, which combines more strongly with silicon than it does with any other element, has Si-O bonds which are about 50% ionic and 50% covalent in most silicate crystal structures.

Where rapid cooling took place, only Classification of crystals by symmetry 33 very small crystals had time to grow and these often formed as microcrystalline masses. These and the much larger well-formed crystals are found in cavities known geologically as geodes, druses or vugs. Classification of crystals by symmetry In crystallography, the concept of symmetry as applied to the crystal structure is of prime importance. As we will see shortly, crystals are classified into seven systems which range from the most symmetrical, the cubic or isometric system, to the least symmetrical, the triclinic system.

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