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By Ryan Gingeras

The cave in of the Ottoman Empire was once under no circumstances a novel occasion. After 600 years of ruling over the peoples of North Africa, the Balkans and heart East, the dying throes of sultanate encompassed a chain of wars, insurrections, and revolutions spanning the early 20th century. This quantity includes a complete accounting of the political, fiscal, social, and foreign forces that introduced about Read more...


After 600 years of ruling over the peoples of North Africa, the Balkans and heart East, the cave in of the Ottoman Empire encompassed a sequence of wars, insurrections, and revolutions Read more...

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Extra resources for Fall of the sultanate. The Great War and the end of the Ottoman Empire 1908-1922

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Muslim and Christian villagers in the Balkans and Anatolia were similarly certain that European and American missionaries, diplomats, and tradesmen held as much, if not more, power and influence than the empire’s own provincial administrators. Matters of war, peace, and commerce provided even more stark displays of the state’s inherent weaknesses and failings. Despite repeatedly pledging to uphold Istanbul’s sovereignty and integrity, British, French, and Russian intervention into Ottoman domestic affairs extracted heavy territorial and economic concessions.

As a party comprising predominately junior officers and officials, the rise of the CUP provided a platform for a younger cohort of men who eventually supplanted or usurped the power and authority of administrators drawn from Şevket’s generation. Unlike the outgoing grand vizier, the Young Turks who came to populate the upper ranks of the Ottoman government after 1913 were individuals imbued with strong, and at times conflicting, ideological leanings. Governance, in the eyes of many CUP loyalists, was not simply a matter of technocratic or even patriotic service.

14 While some of these Maronite, Armenian, Greek, Bulgarian, and Druze immigrants returned to the Ottoman lands after a few short years away, a great many more stayed on and sent money home from such places as Dearborn, Worcester, Montevideo, Mexico City, Buenos Aires, and Brooklyn. At a time when many associated the empire’s principle ills with war and rebellion, there were other more banal and immediate sources of violence that plagued Abdülhamid II’s empire. Arguably the greatest danger to the lives and livelihoods of average citizens during this era came in the form of banditry.

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