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By John A. Bissonette, Patricia Catherine Cramer, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

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Each person was asked to list his/her job title and area of specialty related to roads and wildlife. 5%). 4% (357) of participants. Ranking of Priorities Priorities were ranked for overall value, and then within the practice or research categories by classification (nation of origin, profession, and employer) of the participants. The rank of a priority was determined by adding all the scores submitted for that priority and calculating the mean value. For example, the top priority to incorporate wildlife mitigation needs early in the planning processes received a total of 441 rankings, ranging from 1 to 10.

Ranking of practice priorities for transportation and wildlife for North America. Rank within Practice Priorities for Practice Rank Overall 1 Incorporate wildlife mitigation needs early in the DOT/MoT programming, planning, and design process 1 2 Combine animal-friendly mitigation methods such as wildlife crossings, fences, escape ramps and gates, rather than using one method 3 3 Use conservation plans and connectivity analyses to inform the transportation programming/planning/design process on where mitigation is needed and how it may be carried out 4 4 Establish effective communication and collaboration among stakeholders 6 5 Incorporate into plans and schedules wildlife crossing options that can be accomplished by maintenance crews simply by retrofitting existing facilities 8 6 Continued public and agency education on wildlife and roads issues 10 7 Use standardized and vetted protocols for collecting and recording roadkill carcass and wildlife-vehicle colllision data 18 8 Incorporate standardized guidelines when conducting mitigation activities 19 9 Use standardized documentation schedules to record maintenance activities in order to maintain crossings and fencing effectiveness over time 21 10 Develop and enhance agency websites to include standardized guidelines 24 11 Explicit mitigation legislation to help determine where and when mitigation is necessary, and how it is to be carried out 25 26 Table 5.

The goal of greater permeability will take dedicated work on the part of engineers and ecologists to include consideration of wildlife passages in the earliest of stages of long-range transportation programs. Consideration at the project level, and post-project for passage maintenance during routine maintenance operations will continue to be important, as will sound ecological research to document if passages meet stated goals and objectives. Communication among those interested in passages, as well as those not typically involved in ecosystem concerns, such as planners, engineers, and administrators, will be effective if it is proactive and collaborative.

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