By Donald Hall
From a former Poet Laureate, a brand new number of essays providing a gloriously unforeseen view from the vantage aspect of very previous age
Donald corridor has lived a outstanding lifetime of letters, a occupation capped by means of a countrywide Medal of the humanities, presented by means of the president. Now, within the "unknown, unanticipated galaxy" of very previous age, he's writing looking essays that startle, circulate, and pleasure. within the transgressive and horrifyingly humorous "No Smoking," he seems to be again over his lifetime, and several other of his ancestors' lifetimes, of smoking unfiltered cigarettes, packs of them each day. corridor paints his previous: "Decades one another — thirty used to be terrifying, 40 I by no means spotted simply because i used to be inebriated, fifty used to be top with a complete swap of lifestyles, sixty prolonged the bliss of 50 . . ." And, poignantly, frequently joyfully, he limns his current: "When I became 80 and rubbed testosterone on my chest, my beard roared like a lion and received 4 inches." such a lot memorably, corridor writes approximately his enduring love affair along with his ancestral Eagle Pond Farm and with the writing existence that sustains him, on a daily basis: "Yesterday my first nap used to be at 9:30 a.m., but if I aroused from sleep I wrote again."
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Chapter 4 initiates a discussion of the notion of Nation and Discourse ✦ 31 history as it emerges, in the 1920s and 1930s, in the political writings of two of the leaders of the Jewish Labor Movement in Mandatory Palestine: David Ben-Gurion and Meir Yaari. I suggest that, contrary to the common perception of the two as, ﬁ rst and foremost, political leaders, their writing reveals underlying metaphysical structures that inform their politics. More speciﬁcally, both struggle to come to terms with what I call historical anxiety, effected by the demand to “Return to History,” that is, by the notion that the Hebrew discourse of the nation constitutes the return of the Jews to history.
This class was situated in a position of subordination vis-à-vis colonial power and, simultaneously, in a position of authority Nation and Discourse ✦ 25 vis-à-vis other colonized sectors. Consequently, the middle class occupies two distinct positions in Chatterjee’s argument, one as it endeavors to interrupt colonial hegemonic discourse, and the other as the producer of national hegemonic discourse. To resolve the contradictions entailed in this double position, Chatterjee contends, the middle class divided “the world of social institutions and practices into two domains—the material and the spiritual” (6).
N. Vološinov’s discussion of ideology in Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (1986, originally published in 1929). 12. Gramsci 1971, 327, quoted in Hall 1988, 9. 18 ✦ Rhetoric and Nation my italics). The refraction of different, often conﬂ icting meanings, social practices, and subject positions in the sign allows it to be rearticulated in divergent circumstances so as to serve divergent practices that yield, in turn, new meanings. Indeed, Hall puts into relief the plural, even conﬂ icting, effects of ideology: “[I]deology,” he writes, “always consists, internally, of the articulation of different discursive elements; and externally that discursive articulations can position the same groups or individuals differently” (10).