By Alain Badiou, Gilles Haéri
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Additional resources for Eloge des mathématiques
This claim implies that any method of answering a question about right and wrong counts as a procedure. She seems to conﬁrm this a few pages later when she claims that substantive realism, which holds that moral facts are true in virtue of something independent of the moral agent, is a version of procedural realism. This understanding of procedure would be itself too broad. The universality of the term “procedure” when taken to include any method of answering questions makes it useless when trying to ﬁnd something distinctive about proceduralism.
A few of the references concern theology. In the 1788 essay “On the Use of Teleological Principles in Philosophy”, Kant notes that his explanations follow natural science so carefully that he is assumed to be a naturalist (presumably in the ﬁrst sense) by one reviewer but rejects that label as more properly belonging to theological discussions (8:178). The term appears in the Religion, where Kant deﬁnes a naturalist as one who “denies the reality of any supernatural divine revelation” (6:154), and in the Conﬂict of the Faculties, where naturalism is deﬁned in religion as “ecclesiastical faith without the Bible” (7:60).
Just as objects in space are really independent of the subject in an empirical sense but dependent on the subject in a transcendental sense, there might be moral principles, properties, or objects that are really independent of the moral agent in an empirical sense but dependent on the moral agent in a transcendental sense, making Kant an empirical moral realist but a transcendental moral idealist. 17 For this overall transcendental/empirical distinction to work in practical philosophy, the concept of empirical experience, or the everyday experience of human beings, must be understood to have a practical dimension in addition to the theoretical dimension provided in the analytic of the ﬁrst Critique.