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By Toshio Sudo

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Borst and Keller (1969) made a systematic survey of clays using this technique, and indicated that the results were valid for interpreting the modes of occurrence and origin of clays. Replica techniques with metal shadowing are valid for revealing fine textures of the crystal surfaces. They can provide information on nascent crystal growth patterns, etched figures, crystallographic directions due to twinning or cleavage planes, and various defects resulting from lattice imperfections or the presence of occluded impurities.

It has subsequently been reported by several workers that the sample called beta-sepiolite is compact and massive consisting of aggregates of platy particles without definite 26 CRYSTAL MORPHOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF CLAY MINERALS outlines, and shows broader X-ray powder reflections than those of alpha-sepiolite (Brindley, 1959). Although it seems natural to consider that the broadness is due to finely divided particles, it has been also suggested that the broad reflections are due to “the degree of crystallinity” which may vary from sample to sample in sepiolite.

Lizardite and antigorite, and 2H,). In the 1T polytype, the octahedral cation set is the same in each layer, whereas in 2H, the set alternates regularly in successive layers. (2) Assuming the I1 octahedral cation set in the initial layer, the shift of the second layer is designated by -a0/3, and succeeding possible interlayer shifts are considered to take place in 6 directions, f a , , fa,, and *a3 relative to this initial shift. The polytypes are grouped into three sets with regard to the number of axes along which shifts occur.

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