By Professor Dr. Victor A. Drits (auth.)
The selection of Springer-Verlag to submit this ebook in English got here as a delightful shock. in fact that i began writing the 1st model of the ebook again in 1978. i needed to draw realization to prospects inherent in selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) which, for numerous purposes, weren't being positioned to take advantage of. via that point, I had at my disposal definite structural facts on common and artificial minerals received utilizing SAED and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and this influenced my scripting this booklet. there have been a number of features relating those information that i needed to stress. First, it used to be generally new and understudied minerals that own the strange structural positive factors studied by means of SAED and HREM. this is able to curiosity mineralogists, crystallo chemists, and crystallographers. moment, the consequences acquired indi cated that, less than yes stipulations, SAED should be an efficient, and occasionally the single attainable, approach for constitution research of minerals. This inference was once of fundamental value, due to the fact that tremendous dispersion and terrible crystallinity of various typical and synthe tic minerals makes their constitution examine via traditional diffrac tion equipment infrequently attainable. 3rd, it used to be established that during many instances X-ray powder diffraction research of dispersed miner als should be mixed with SAED and native strength dispersion research. This was once very important, due to the fact that researchers in structural min eralogy typically neglected, and nonetheless forget about even the best in formation that is available from geometrical research of SAED styles acquired from microcrystals.
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Additional info for Electron Diffraction and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy of Mineral Structures
65) is independent of whether it is the integrated, or the mean, or the maximum reflection intensities that are measured. If it is the local intensities for the hko reflections that are measured, then P;lPj = dl(hko)ldJ(hko). In the recent decade a number of new natural substances has been revealed (Chuhrov et al. 1980a, b, 1982, 1983a, b, 1984; Drits et al. 1985). The structures of these are described by regular alternation of layers differing in composition and/ or structure. , defect layers of the other type.
The values for isotropic and anisotropic coefficients Bare determined in the crystal structure refinement by the least squares method (see below). 5 Structure Amplitude and Structure Factor In terms of the first Born approximation, the wave function describing the scattering of electrons by a unit cell is spherical, as in the case of an isolated atom. The amplitude of this wave is called the structure amplitude and is given by 4>(s) = J unit cell QJ(r) exp[21lisr]dV. In the reciprocal space specified by vectors a *, b *, C *, vector s is defined in terms of continuous coordinates x*, y*, z* in the general case, and by node indices hk I in the case of the reciprocal lattice.
And the half-width of hko reflections depends only on the coherent scattering domain area and instrumental factors (Gorshkov and Drits 1984). 1 Raypath in a Transmission Electron Microscope for Imaging and Selected Area Diffraction The possibility of obtaining not only a magnified image of the object but also its diffraction pattern is the main advantage of an electron microscope. It is also essential that both the electron microscopic image and the diffraction pattern correspond to the same part of the specimen studied.