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Additional resources for Discovering Turkey 1998
154. Karpat 2001, p. 349. See also Ülker, Erol, “Contextualising ‘Turkification’: NationBuilding in the Late Ottoman Empire, 1908–1918”, Nations and Nationalism, vol. 11, no. 4, 2005, pp. 613–6. 38 Kushner, David, The Rise of Turkish Nationalism, 1976–1908, London: Frank Cass 1977, pp. 29–31. 39 Kushner 1977, p. ix. 36 37 the young turks in power27 This rise of a Turkish nationalism in the Young Turk government era, or at least a shift in the dominant Ottoman ideology from Ottomanism and Islamism to nationalism, is widely accepted among historians.
2 Both areas were/are perceived by outsiders in the ‘West’ as backward and stagnant, in part, as the narrative goes, thanks to centuries of Ottoman rule, and both Said and Todorova make fascinating connections between the production of knowledge and discourse and the formulation of political policies toward the two regions in the twentieth century and beyond. The work of Said and Todorova, and indeed the entire historiographies they have generated, complicate and question modern narratives and political projects regarding the Middle East and Balkans, but in doing so reinforce the Middle East and Balkans focus for our attentions.
This was despite the claims made then and later by the Russian monarch to be the protector of Orthodox Christians within the Ottoman Empire. Jumping ahead to the Turkish War of Independence, Russia had been the foreign enemy that prompted mass violence on the eastern borders, and then, by the close of the war, the supranational alternative to a western capitalist trajectory, not to mention the state that ruled over large Turkic populations that could be redeemed, in an echo of the Greek Megali Idea.