By Robert Joseph Peckham, Gyozo Jordan
This book is the 1st publication at the improvement and alertness of electronic terrain modelling for local making plans and coverage help. it's a compilation of analysis effects via overseas examine teams on the ecu Commission's Joint study Centre, offering medical help to the advance and implementation of european environmental coverage. functions contain the pan-European River and Catchment Database, eu Flood Alert procedure, ecu electronic Soil Database and substitute solar power assets, all mentioned in a GIS framework within the context of the INfrastructure for SPatial info in Europe (INSPIRE). This practice-oriented ebook is usually recommended to working towards environmental modellers and GIS specialists engaged on neighborhood making plans and coverage aid functions.
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Extra resources for Digital Terrain Modelling: Development and Applications in a Policy Support Environment
In other words, an inaccurately acquired DEM will produce inaccurate gradient estimations. It is noted however that topographic slope and aspect can be obtained by direct field measurement circumventing the problem of derivative calculations from an inaccurate DEM. LIDAR and RADAR data represent earth surface, therefore these data sources are inaccurate representations of the topographic surface especially in densely vegetated or built-up areas. Thus, some pre-processing is required to obtain topographic elevation before gradient calculations.
Valley line (drainage line) 12. Ridge line (watershed divide). 21 flow boundaries Singular points, inflexion points, valley lines and ridge lines are called ‘surface specific points’ because they are calculated only for certain isolated locations (points and lines). In contrast, elevation, gradient and curvature are calculated for points of areas. In practice, first points of the topographic surface are classified as regular and singular points. Next, singular points are classified into peaks, pits, passes and flats, and are then excluded from further analysis.
Wilson and Gallant (2000) found that aspect estimations are relatively insensitive to DEM resolution. Evans (1980) noted the sensitivity of curvature to grid spacing. Plan curvature was found to be less sensitive to DEM resolution than profile curvature (Wilson and Gallant 2000). In general, terrain attributes measured on different scales should not be compared (Evans 1980). Large pits can also result from insufficient grid spacing that cannot resolve pit outlet elevation and create artificial dams.