By Dr. A. Muttoni, Dr. J. Schwartz, Prof. Dr. B. Thürlimann (auth.)
17 2 tension FIELDS for easy constructions 2. 1 creation during this bankruptcy the habit and energy of easy constructions made from rein compelled or prestressed concrete is investigated using tension fields. specifically, the webs and flanges of beams, basic partitions, brackets, bracing beams and joints of frames are investigated. by way of this implies, the vast majority of layout instances are already coated. in truth, all structural elements are third-dimensional. right here, although, elements are thought of both at once as two-dimensional plate components (i. e. the airplane rigidity situation with out version of pressure over the thickness of the aspect) or they're subdivided into a number of plates. due to the fact two-dimensional structural parts are statically redundant, it really is attainable for a selected loading to be in equilibrium with many (theoretically an unlimited variety of) rigidity states. If the reduce certain approach to the speculation of plasticity is hired, then an admissible rigidity box or any mix of such pressure fields can be chosen. In bankruptcy four it's proven that this technique is acceptable for the layout of bolstered concrete constructions, and the final result of the alternative of the ultimate structural procedure at the structural habit is handled intimately. the 1st situations of using this system date again to Ritter  and Morsch , who already at first of the century investigated the resultants of the inner stresses via truss models.
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Additional info for Design of Concrete Structures with Stress Fields
The internal lever arm results from the assumption that the resultants of the compression and tension flanges act at the center of gravity of the flanges. 250~1 J J I I I I I.. ~ /2. L, 2500 800 5000 -~ . 8... 8 ~ Fig. 31: Beam and loading t 1000 1100 2000 41 Beams with I-Crass-Section Subjected to Bending and Shear I I Fig. 32: I 1 I; I I 11 1 1 'I j Hand sketch of the stress field and the resultants The stress field can be developed qualitatively by adopting elements of already known solutions (Fig.
N/m d) 136 1m 116kN/m Force .. s"rrup reonforcement e) ... , 7% ,~ 7eZ ;: 16 ~ Fig. 37: Stress field, forces in reinforcement, resultants and Cremona diagram 46 Stress Fields for Simple Structures Thereby it has to be taken into account that the force in the inclined compression flange exhibits a vertical component which acts in the opposite direction to the shear force. This structural effect corresponds to a direct support. The variation of shear force is shown in Fig. 37b in comparison to that of the shear force component in the compression flange.
Thus at the left of this zone an additional small fan results, which is of no significance for practical design. 39 Beams with I -Crass-Section Subjected to Bending and Shear 0) 521 kN 126~k b) Force In ionglludlnol , relnforcemenl 2~19 6625 kN/m c) 4125 kN/m 5375kN/m 26~8 2815 kN/m kN ~75 1625 kN/m kN/m , Force III shrrup relnforcemenl 125 k 0 125kN -2 '" OJ