Download Crystals: Growth, Morphology, & Perfection by Ichiro Sunagawa PDF

By Ichiro Sunagawa

How do crystals nucleate and develop? Why and the way do crystals shape any such big range of morphologies? those questions were posed because the 17th century, and are nonetheless very important for contemporary expertise and figuring out the Earth's inside and formation of minerals by means of residing organisms. together with a number of case experiences of advanced platforms, from diamond, calcite and pyrite to crystals shaped via biomineralization, this booklet establishes the atomic strategies at the back of crystal progress.

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Glide is a phenomenon in which part of a crystal is displaced (without losing adhesive force on a glide plane) by a distance (either a lattice spacing or a multiple of it) in the glide direction. The theoretical value of the shear modulus, assuming that glide occurs instantaneously in a perfect ideal crystal, was calculated to be up to 1000 times the experimentally measured value. From this emerged a theory that considered the glide phenomenon to be linked to a movement of dislocations. The theory assumed that glide occurs because dislocations move on the glide plane (see Fig.

Real crystals, however, are imperfect, containing impurities and dislocations. Frank’s spiral growth model has been proposed to account for the growth mechanism of real crystals. Soon after the proposal of this model, the first evidence to support the proof of the 1 faces of natural beryl crystals [18], followed by obsermodel was obtained on {1010} vations of spiral step patterns on many faces of a wide variety of crystals. Thus, the spiral growth theory was firmly established [19]. When a screw dislocation outcrops on a smooth interface, a step is created on the surface that has zero height at the dislocation core and a height corresponding to one Burgers vector at the edge of the face.

Concentration variation in the bulk phase is isotropic around a crystal. Consider a crystal growing in a concentric, equi-concentration distribution field. In a polyhedral crystal bounded by corners, edges, and faces, we expect the concentration difference at a corner to be larger than that at an edge, which is in turn larger than that at a face, and thus corners and edges are at a higher concentration state than is the center of a face. This creates surface diffusion. The concentration differences at the corners, edges, and face centers of a growing crystal will differ depending on the bulk supersaturation or flow rate along the surface.

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