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By Alan Holden

This in actual fact illustrated clarification the fundamental ideas of crystals may possibly be used as a textual content or supplementary sourcebook through high-school scholars (for which it used to be initially written), scholars on the junior university or undergraduate point, or the final reader with an curiosity in technological know-how.

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Previous page page_61 next page > < previous page page_62 next page > Page 62 In the case of a gas, the increase of disorder on escape from the solution is more nearly one of motion than of arrangement. In solution the molecules of gas have a disordered arrangement, but their motion is restricted Fig. 14. Molecules in solution are caged by the solvent, which restricts their motions. Nevertheless dissolving a solid increases the disorder of its molecules, because the orderliness of crystalline arrangement disappears.

The best way to understand the special character of salts is to examine first a special character which their component atoms acquire. For definiteness, turn again to common salt. Already in this book it has proved to be a useful example of crystalline behavior, and now you can take it as an example illustrating the nature of salts in general. A chemical analysis of common salt shows that it is made of sodium chlorideone atom of sodium for each atom of chlorine. You might expect that it would be made of molecules of sodium chloride, each molecule consisting of an atom of sodium and an atom of chlorine tightly joined together.

It can bat back and forth rapidly in the cage, while the cage moves about rather slowly < previous page page_62 next page > < previous page page_63 next page > Page 63 through the liquid. When it escapes from its cage into a gas, it can roam with high velocity, almost at will, among its neighbors. Figure 14 suggests the contrast in the cir- Fig. 15. Molecules of dissolved solid are in somewhat similar circumstances when dissolved in a gas (A) and in a liquid (B), except that the liquid restricts their motions much more.

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