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By Anthony Bryer, Heath W. Lowry, Dumbarton Oaks

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Additional resources for Continuity and change in late Byzantine and early Ottoman society: papers given at a symposium at Dumbarton Oaks in May 1982

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The defters confirm other evidence that local defence, especially, remained in Christian hands long after 1461, and that it was based upon the obligations of land tenure. At one level, the timar, it can be demonstrated that some Christian lords simply transferred obligations from Grand Komnenos to Sultan. 32 There are indeed institu­ tions, of which we have only fragmentary record before 1461, which resemble the imported Ottoman nomenclature. But how far can we put the cart before the horse, accept the principle of institutional as well as demographic continuity, and so use Ottoman material to retrospectively inform the Trapezuntine?

Bryer, The estates of the Empire of Trebizond,;* AP, 35 (1979) = CS,VII, 398-99, 447; since when I have obtained a modern example of the eliktrin: the listarin is illustrated in Hesiod, Works and Days, Paris Gr. l04r (14th century); Venice Marc. Gr. 34r (D. H3v; and Paris Gr. 36v (14th century). 13. N. Beldiceanu, 'L'empire de Trébizonde à travers un registre Ottoman de 1487,' AP, 35 (1979), 59 XII The Acts reveal a remarkably wide range of agriculture. Cereals are more important as one climbs south, although the charters do not quantify it: princi­ pally wheat, but also barley and some lazut, a coarse local grain.

But how far can we put the cart before the horse, accept the principle of institutional as well as demographic continuity, and so use Ottoman material to retrospectively inform the Trapezuntine? I will argue that it can be done, with obvious caution. * Byzance après Byzance' is a rootless thing in most places where it has been sought. The lands of the Danubian princes might give it some substance after the 1480s in the patriarchate, Athos and the courts of Bucarest and Jassy, but it is not to be found in central institutions.

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