By Christian Lininger
This e-book analyses the potentials and outcomes of a transformation from production-based to consumption-based ways in overseas weather coverage. With assistance from an analytical version, the writer investigates the consequences of other coverage variations on environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, carbon leakage, competitiveness and the worldwide distribution of source of revenue. the commercial, felony and political history and the usually contradictory findings on consumption-based ways are reviewed in nice aspect. within the ultimate chapters, strategies for functional coverage layout are constructed. The e-book concludes swap to intake orientation isn't a coverage device wherein industrialized nations can unilaterally increase weather coverage effectiveness, yet should still otherwise be obvious as a potential intermediate step in order to an absolutely multilateral mitigation strategy.
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This booklet analyses the potentials and effects of a metamorphosis from production-based to consumption-based techniques in foreign weather coverage. With assistance from an analytical version, the writer investigates the consequences of alternative coverage versions on environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, carbon leakage, competitiveness and the worldwide distribution of source of revenue.
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Additional resources for Consumption-Based Approaches in International Climate Policy
This discussion shows that one of the most common policy effectiveness indicators— carbon leakage—in its standard definition is actually tailored only to a productionbased policy. An alternative definition is presented that allows leakage to be determined in a meaningful way also for consumption-oriented policies. This chapter introduces a number of basic concepts that will be used throughout this study: first, the exact difference between production-based and consumption-based emission accounting will be explained, then the question how a country’s consumption-based emission inventory can be used as a base for climate policy will be examined, and finally, various criteria used to assess different climate policy variants will be discussed.
Thus, from the fact that the production-based and the consumption-based emissions inventories are equal on a global scale (see Eq. e. apply a uniform tax rate—or carbon price—to all emissions), it would make no difference whether production-based or consumption-based emission were taxed: the tax base is the same in both cases—all emissions world-wide. In the remainder of this study, however, situations will be examined where just one region abates and the other does not—in that case, the policy bases of a production- and a consumption-based policy will differ.
Eu/ 2010/09/levelling-the-playing-field-in-a-fragmented-carbon-market-do-carbon-based-bordertax-adjustments-work/. Accessed 7 Mar 2011 Cosbey A, Droege S, Fischer C, Reinaud J, Stephenson J, Weischer L, Wooders P (2012) A guide for the concerned: guidance on the elaboration and implementation of border carbon adjustment. Policy Report 03 (November). Entwined, Stockholm. pdf. Accessed 3 Apr 2013 Davis SJ, Caldeira K (2010) Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5687–5692 Droege S (2011) Using border measures to address carbon flows.