By Raz Miri
The efficacy of cardiac resynchronization treatment (CRT) via biventricular pacing (BVP) has been proven through various reviews in sufferers being affected by congestive middle failure. with the intention to in attaining a suggestion for optimum remedy with BVP units, an automatic non-invasive technique in keeping with an electrophysiological computing device version of the guts is gifted. The awarded examine investigates an off-line optimization set of rules in line with diversified electrode positioning and timing delays.
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Additional info for Computer assisted optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy
An important example is the (Na/Ca) exchanger located in the sarcolemma . 12. A schematic showing the components of a cell membrane. The cell membrane consists of the phospholipide bilayer, in which ion channels and ion pumps are embedded. Red and blue circles characterize N a+ and K + ions, respectively. The Na-K pump and the one exemplary K + channel as transmembrane proteins are marked in yellow. The binding sites of the K + channel are displayed with a minus sign. The thin arrows across the membrane depict the direction of concentration and voltage gradients.
Myocardial cells, which are about 50 to 100 µm size and form the major part of heart tissue. They are responsible for contracting and relaxing, since these cells contain contractile proteins (actin and myosin). Once a depolarization wave reaches a myocyte, calcium is released within the cell causing it to contract (excitation contraction coupling). Myocardial cells can transmit an electrical current similar to electrical conducting cells but they do it less efficiently. 17). 24 Chapter 2. 17. Depolarization causes calcium to be released within a myocyte.
Several trials involving patients who were studied after a myocardial infarction or who had dilated cardiomyopathy found a benefit from ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) inhibitors, beta-adrenergic antagonists or cardiac resynchronization [49, 109, 112, 133, 237]. Such beneficial effects were associated with so-called reverse remodeling, in which the therapy promoted a return to a more normal ventricular size and shape [49, 109, 112, 133, 237]. The reverse-remodeling process is a mechanism through which a variety of treatments palliate the heart failure syndrome.