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Et al. A multi-national, multiinstitutional study of assessment of programming skills of first-year CS students. SIGCSE Bulletin 33, 4 (2001), 125–180. 6. Prepare and Inspire: K–12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America’s Future. , 2010. 7. Rampell, C. Once a dynamo, the tech sector is slow to hire. The New York Times (Sept. 7, 2010); http://www. com/2010/09/07/business/economy/07jobs. html. 8. Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Revisited: Rapidly Approaching Category 5.

Raymond Lister thought that maybe McCracken’s study was asking students to do too much, in that they were designing solutions and implementing programs. He organized another MIMN study, this time where they asked students to read and trace code. 556 students from six institutions across seven countries completed 12 multiple-choice questions involving iteration and array manipulation. The average score was 60%; 23% of the students were only able to get four or fewer problems correct. 10 Elliott Tew has been interested in how we can compare performance between different kinds of CS1, especially where the language varies.

Or hijack the users’ computers? Today’s malware is a killer app: obfuscated, often; clumsy, never. A medley of viruses, worms, trojans, and rootkits, it is clever, enigmatic— a sly hybrid. Its bureaucratic components (such as installers and updaters) are examples of automated elegance. Identity theft, botnetting, and many other forms of trespass and larceny continue. Coupled with negligence by institutions that are supposed to safeguard our privacy, the picture is bleak. Malware launchers seem to be always ahead.

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