By J Shore
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Extra info for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Vol 2 Organic Chemistry and Application Properties
Chem. Colorist, 27 (Nov 1995) 17. R H Mehta and A R Mehta, Colourage, 43/45 (1996) 49. , 103 (1987) 32. H Egli, Textilveredlung, 8 (1973) 495. W Mosimann, Text. Chem. Colorist, 1 (1969) 182. J Cegarra, Proc. IFATCC, Barcelona (1975). , 94 (1978) 394. , 64 (1983) 221. D R Karsa and M R Porter, Biodegradability of surfactants (Glasgow: Blackie Academic and Professional, 1995). M J Schwuger, Detergents in the environment (New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996). S S Talmage, Environmental and human safety of major surfactants (London: Lewis Publications, 1994).
1 ELECTROLYTES AND pH CONTROL The simplest auxiliaries of all are the neutral electrolytes such as sodium chloride and sodium sulphate. These are used in large quantities for dyeing cellulosic materials with direct or reactive dyes and wool with anionic dyes. 2). The electrolyte suppresses ionisation of the dye in solution, thereby effectively reducing its solubility in the dyebath and modifying the equilibrium in favour of movement of dye anions from the solution into the fibre. The objective, of course, is to use the optimum amount of salt to give the required rate and degree of exhaustion of the dyebath; too little electrolyte is ineffective whilst too much may aggregate the dye to an extent that may inhibit its diffusion into the fibre, thus giving a tendency to surface coloration only, or even bringing about precipitation.
Such chemicals are aptly known as sequestering agents. Other terms frequently used in the literature include the derivative ‘sequestrants’ and ‘complexing agents’, although complexing does cover a wider field than just metal–ion chelation with which we are concerned here. Sequestering agents work by a mechanism of complex formation, often in the form of chelation. 2), the resulting complex remaining soluble and innocuous under the conditions of processing. The most useful donating atoms are nitrogen, as found in amines or substituted amines, and oxygen in the form of carboxyl, phosphate or ionised hydroxy groups.