By W. Stegmüller
These volumes include all of my articles released among 1956 and 1975 that can be of curiosity to readers within the English-speaking international. the 1st 3 essays in Vol. 1 care for old issues. In every one case I so far as attainable, meets con have tried a rational reconstruction which, transitority criteria of exactness. within the challenge of Universals Then and Now a few rules of W.V. Quine and N. Goodman are used to create a contemporary comic strip of the historical past of the controversy on universals starting with Plato and finishing with Hao Wang's process L. the second one article matters Kant's Philosophy of technological know-how. by way of examining his place vis-a-vis I. Newton, Christian Wolff, and D. Hume, it really is proven that for Kant the very inspiration of empirical wisdom was once beset with a funda psychological logical hassle. In his metaphysics of expertise Kant provided an answer differing from all earlier in addition to next makes an attempt aimed toward the matter of creating a systematic thought. The final of the 3 ancient papers makes use of a few recommendations of contemporary common sense to provide an actual account of Wittgenstein's so-called photograph conception of which means. E. Stenius' interpretation of this idea is taken as an intuitive place to begin whereas an intensional version of Tarski's idea of a relational process furnishes a technical device. The thoughts of inodel international and of logical area, including these of homomorphism and isomorphism be tween version worlds and among logical areas, shape the conceptual foundation of the reconstruction.
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Extra resources for Collected Papers on Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and History of Philosophy: Volume I
Locke advocated the doctrine that we are able "to frame abstract ideas". ). In this way I form an Idea of that which is common to them all: the Idea of red. Once we have formed such abstract Ideas, then we can assign them names. Thus it is also characteristic of J. Locke to construe all the general predicates as names of something. For example, the word 'red' is not a name of a concrete object but is to be construed as the name of the Idea of red we have formed. But what is now THE PROBLEM OF UNIVERSALS THEN AND NOW 23 the exact meaning of the expression 'to form an abstract idea'?
Now, on the contrary, since we have extended the concept of a thing we may construe predicate-expressions as names even within Nominalism, viz. as names of certain encompassing four-dimensional things. status. The predicate 'cow', for example, now no longer designates the mammal species cow, that is, an Ideal essence, but that one real object whose concrete components are the individual cows, just as the cells of an organism are construed as its real parts. The new nominalistic trick which is supposed to remove the poverty of expressions of its system, thus consists in replacing all the universals by appropriately chosen concrete wholes and in substituting for the platonistic class membership relation the part-whole relation compatible with Nominalism.
This argument is also essentially right, but it merely proves that it is senseless to construe ideal objects as concrete parts of concrete objects, which is, after all, what happens in the universalia-in-rebus-theory. Despite Occam's violent polemics against every kind of realism of universals, we cannot consider him a Nominalist in our sense of the word. Occam simply emphasizes quite explicitly that universals have no existence outside the psyche (extra animam). However, he acknowledges them to be 'ens in anima', psychic things.