By D. Monna (auth.), Norman Herz, Marc Waelkens (eds.)
Marble in historic Greece and Rome: Geology, Quarries, trade, Artifacts Marble continues to be the sine qua non uncooked fabric of the an cient Greeks and Romans. starting within the Bronze Age sculptu re started in marble and all through classical instances the main im portant statues, reliefs, monuments and inscriptions have been made from it. but, quarry resources replaced in time as personal tastes for various marbles have been encouraged through neighborhood traditions, the pos sibilities of delivery, esthetic tastes, and economics. Marble reviews and the id of the provenance of marble can hence demonstrate a lot approximately Greek and Roman background, alternate, esthe tics and expertise. people in lots of disciplines are learning a variety of facets of Greek and Roman marble utilization. Geologists and geochemists are engaged on ways to be sure the provenance of marble; ar chaeologists are noting altering styles of import and use in excavation~ and studying how bettering quarrying innovations and prelimihary dressing of the extracted fabric stimulated the ultimate form of artifacts; old historians are actually less than status quarry association and bureaucracies that managed marble creation and alternate; paintings historians are seeing how phy sical features of the stone affected the recommendations and elegance of sculpture; architects and engineers have an interest in quarry applied sciences and utilization in construction development. those experts drawn from many disciplines hardly ever have an opportu nity to check notes and notice how every one can give a contribution to the examine attempt of others.
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Earthquake Displacement Fields and the Rotation of the Earth: A NATO Advanced Study Institute Conference Organized by the Department of Geophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, 22 June–28 June 1969
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Extra info for Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade
Fig. 14. Lid for a columnar sarcophagus in an intermediary stage of dressing (DOkimeion). PART II QUARRIES AND QUARRYING TECHNOLOGY EXTRACTION OF BLOCKS IN ANTIQUITY: SPECIAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS TONY KOZELJ Ecole Fran~aise d'Athenes, Athens GR10680 Greece 1. INTRODUCTION Quarry related infrastructure depended on its locality and its nature, temporary or permanent (Fig. 1). However, the basic organization almost always appears to have been the same: - block extraction area, debris slide, sliding ramps to the storage platform, storage platform and hoisting machine position, tool repair workshops, sacred area with a small sanctuary, workers accommodations, guard tower, loading area.
RÖder, J. (1965), 471, 479-484, 511; Klemm, R. & D. (1981), 36. 5. Pillet, M. (1936-37),75,77-80; Zuber, A. (1956),198,200-202; Röder, J. (1965), 515-524, figs. 28-29; Nylander, C. (1968), 6-8; Klemm, R. & D. (1981),36. 6. W. (1971), 30, 33-43, fig. J. (1976), 361, 373-374; Soles, J. (1983), 36-46; J. A. H. (1984), 143-149. 7. Bittel, K. (1936), 57-62; Naumann, R. B. (1974), 1-13, pIs. 1-3. 8. Alzinger, W. (1966-67),67, fig. 37. 9. Berranger, D. (1983),235-237. 10. See on these traces Alzinger, W.
This method was used throughout antiquity. In the Roman era, work rationale was very important. As a result, wedge holes became smaller and their dimensions standardized. Holes had the same characteristics, regardless of the shape of the blocks. , Karystos in Euboia). For hard marbles and granite, iron and bronze wedges were used. , schist on the Acropolis, Thasos). The enormous block at Baalbek, weighing several tons, was extracted by cutting a gallery under the block, then inserting pieces of wood that were used to remove and transport it from the quarry to the temple near the site.