By Paul P. Mariani
By 1952 the chinese language Communist celebration had suppressed all geared up resistance to its regime and stood unopposed, or so it's been believed. inner occasion documents―declassified simply lengthy sufficient for historian Paul Mariani to ship copies out of China―disclose that one staff deemed an enemy of the country held out after the others had fallen. a celebration document from Shanghai marked “top-secret” unearths a made up our minds, frequently brave resistance through the neighborhood Catholic Church. Drawing on centuries of expertise in suffering from the chinese language specialists, the Church used to be proving a obdurate fit for the party.
Mariani tells the tale of ways Bishop (later Cardinal) Ignatius Kung Pinmei, the Jesuits, and the Catholic formative years resisted the regime’s punishing attack at the Shanghai Catholic group and refused to give up the pope and the Church in Rome. appearing clandestinely, mirroring strategies utilized by the formerly underground CCP, Shanghai’s Catholics persisted till 1955, while the social gathering arrested Kung and 1,200 different top Catholics. The imprisoned believers have been later surprised to benefit that the betrayal had come from inside of their very own ranks.
Though the CCP couldn't eliminate the Catholic Church in China, it succeeded in dividing it. Mariani’s mystery heritage strains the origins of a deep cut up within the chinese language Catholic neighborhood, the place kinfolk among the “Patriotic” and underground church buildings stay strained even today.
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Additional info for Church Militant: Bishop Kung and Catholic Resistance in Communist Shanghai
The third front was CCP religious policy. Religious policy already had been quite brutal in other regions of China. Many churches had already been confiscated, and religious personnel had been harassed, imprisoned, or even killed. The reality was sobering. 45 The PLA seemed to be making good on its promise to eradicate religion. There were other such incidents as well. In fact, the July 1948 issue of the China Missionary published an incomplete list of eighty-seven priests and other Catholic religious personnel who had been killed by the CCP during the previous eighteen months.
The most important was his close association with Lo Pahong. 71 Zhu Zhiyao also had close contacts with the church. His own brother was Simon Zhu Kaimin (1868–1960), mentioned earlier as one of the fi rst six Chinese bishops of modern times. Zhu Kaimin was made bishop of the neighboring Diocese of Haimen. In addition, one of Zhu Zhiyao’s sons became a diocesan priest and one of his daughters became a nun. Years later, at least one of his grandsons and one of his granddaughters also entered religious life.
In addition, there were three great prisons in the city: Massenet, South City Jail, and Ward Road Jail (also known as Tilanqiao). The fi rst two prisons could each hold about two thousand people. But Ward Road Jail was the giant. Located in the north of the city, it had more than four thousand cells and could hold up to fi fteen thousand prisoners. In time, the PSB itself would create at least two major branches to deal with what it considered counterrevolutionaries and spies. The fi rst branch dealt with domestic Chinese cases.