By Ellen M Markman
During this landmark paintings on early conceptual and lexical improvement, Ellen Markman explores the attention-grabbing challenge of the way teenagers be successful on the job of inducing techniques. subsidized via large experimental effects, she demanding situations the basic assumptions of conventional theories of language acquisition and proposes set of constraints or ideas of induction permits young children to successfully combine wisdom and to urge information regarding new examples of frequent categories.Ellen M. Markman is Professor of Psychology at Stanford collage.
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Additional resources for Categorization and Naming in Children: Problems of Induction
Objects difficult different children thematic we more the , relation to Although Nevertheless of organize attention children all taxonomic to their . believe be Acquisition of Category Terms 27 that they are learning a new word, they shift their attention from thematic to categorical organization . Although Markman and Hutchinson (1984) refer to this constraint as the " taxonomic constraint ," Carey (1988) has correctly noted that in fact two constraints are being hypothesized . One is that children assume that terms refer to taxonomic categories, and the second is that children are biased to interpret novel labels as referring to whole objects, rather than properties , actions, events, and so on .
If so, then this induction must take place fairly rapidly at an early point in language acquisition , since we found that even 2-year-olds believe that count nouns are more likely to refer to objects that belong to the same category than to objects that are thematically related . There is also the question of the specificity of this constraint . It is not clear whether or not very young children limit the constraint to count nouns as opposed to all words or all stressed terms, for example. Especially if this constraint appears very early, children may at first overextend it , indiscriminately believing that any word they hear must refer to a taxonomic category.
For the category " fish ," trout and salmon might be good exemplars . However , a good ex - ample of a " pet fish " (for instance , a guppy ) is neither a good ex ample of a pet nor a good example of a fish . Thus , the typicality of the single categories does not predict the typicality of the combined category . Although categories defined by family resemblances do not combine in as simple a way as finding the conjunction of necessary and sufficient features , as would be expected for classically defined categories , there are more complex ways of combining prototypes that do well at predicting the typicality of the composite concept .