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By Angeliki E. Laiou

It is a concise survey of the economic system of the Byzantine Empire from the fourth century advert to the autumn of Constantinople in 1453. Organised chronologically, the ebook addresses key issues resembling demography, agriculture, production and the city financial system, alternate, financial advancements, and the function of the country and beliefs. It offers a accomplished evaluate of the economic climate with an emphasis at the monetary activities of the nation and the effective position of the town and non-economic actors, similar to landlords, artisans and money-changers. the ultimate bankruptcy compares the Byzantine economic climate with the economies of western Europe and concludes that the Byzantine economic climate used to be essentially the most profitable examples of a combined economic climate within the pre-industrial global. this can be the one concise common historical past of the Byzantine economic system and may be crucial analyzing for college students of monetary heritage, Byzantine background and medieval historical past extra mostly.

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Patrich holds a less optimistic view and dates the apogee of Caesarea to the late fourth century). -P. Sodini, “L’artisanat urbain a` l’´epoque pal´eochr´etienne,” Kt`ema 4 (1979), pp. 71–119 and other data in Morrisson and Sodini, “Sixth-Century Economy,” pp. 201–4. -P. Sodini, “Marble and Stoneworking in Byzantium,” EHB, I, pp. 129–32 (with map). S. Vryonis, “The Question of the Byzantine Mines”, Speculum 37 (1962), pp. 1–17 ( = S. Vryonis, Byzantium: Its Internal History and Relations with the Muslim World (London, 1971)), art.

P. ), Les Villages dans l’empire byzantin (IVe–XVe si`ecle) (Paris, 2005) (hereafter: Villages), p. 299, and n. , “Les villages et l’occupation du sol,” in Geyer and Lefort, La Bithynie au ˆ pp. 417–19. 15 The staple diet is exemplified in monastic documents that mention rations for adelphata16 as well as in other monastic documents. It includes the usual Mediterranean foods: grains, pulses, olive oil – or butter in colder inland regions – wine, dairy products, fish and meat, fresh vegetables and fruit, and honey for sweetening, or cane sugar in some regions (southern Italy, Sicily, Cyprus) from the eleventh century onward.

Byzantine Shipwrecks,” EHB 2, pp. 899–905 with references; S. Kingsley, A Sixth-century ad Shipwreck off the Carmel Coast, Israel: Dor D and Holy Land Wine Trade (Oxford, 2002). On the limitations of current information and its potential, S. Kingsley, “Late Antique Trade. Research Methodologies and Field Practice,” in Lavan and Bowden, Theory and Practice, pp. 25–56. Sixth to early eighth centuries 41 Ada ship (21m and 50 tons capacity, carrying some 800 amphoras). The construction technique shifted to the medieval skeleton one (where wales are assembled first and planking is more loosely joined) which made them less expensive to build than in Roman times and appropriate to shorter distances.

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