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Two individuals may have differing cognitive abilities within the same level of general intelligence. WHAT OF DIFFERENCES On the whole, variation between men and women tends to be smaller than deviations within each sex, but very large differences between the groups do exist—in men’s high level of visual-spatial targeting ability, for one. Not all the behaviors that distinguish males are categorized at the same time, however. Organization by androgens of the male-typical behaviors of mounting and of rough-and-tumble play, for example, occur at different times prenatally in rhesus monkeys.

At present, there are insufficient data on possible sex differences in hippocampal size in human subjects. One of the most compelling areas of evidence for hormonally influenced sex differences in humans comes from studies of girls exposed to excess androgens in the prenatal or neonatal stage. The production of abnormally large quantities of adrenal androgens can occur because of a genetic defect in a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Before the 1970s a similar condition also unexpectedly appeared in the offspring of pregnant women who took various synthetic steroids.

If this evolutionary scenario of ecological continuity is true, the bonobo may have undergone less transformation than either humans or chimpanzees. It could most closely resemble the common ancestor of all three modern species. Indeed, in the 1930s Harold J. are conspicuously dominant over females; they reign supremely and often brutally. It is highly unusual for a fully grown male chimpanzee to be dominated by any female. Enter the bonobo. Despite their common name—the pygmy chimpanzee— bonobos cannot be distinguished from the chimpanzee by size.

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