By S.A. Morse
A reprint, with corrections, of the textbook initially released by means of Springer-Verlag in 1980. An exposition of the rules of part diagrams as utilized to igneous rock, illustrated with basalts. Annotation copyright ebook information, Inc. Portland, Or.
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Extra resources for Basalts and Phase Diagrams: An Introduction to the Quantitative Use of Phase Diagrams in Igneous Petrology
Once a pure, homogeneous diopside glass is obtained, it can be crystallized readily by holding it at 1200-1300° C overnight, or several times overnight if desired for better crystallinity. The resulting crystals are extremely small (usually much less than 10 #Lm in length), but give sharp xray peaks. They can be used in melting experiments by the quenching method (or by differential thermal analysis, which measures a discontinuity lJiammering is not necessary if Pt911 AU5 is used, as the melt does not wet this alloy.
The most obvious difference between H20 and silicates is that the former is liquid at room temperature, and is relatively close to its freezing point over the earth's surface. A more subtle difference, and one which is the source of much initial confusion among students of silicates, is that ice shows a negative change of volume on melting under normal conditions, so that ice floats in the sea and in cocktails, and the milk left too long on the winter doorstep extrudes its creamy top and cap from the neck of the bottle.
Amount), and a .... k are each components of the system. Readers not familiar with chemical thermodynamics should not throw up their hands in horror, for what we propose to show does not require an understanding of all these terms. At equilibrium, by definition, entropy, volume, and amounts of components may not change, so their differentials equal zero: dS = 0, dV = 0, dn i = 0. 1) integrates to E = TS - PV + lLa na + .... 2) We see now, merely as a book-keeping exercise, that the energy of the system depends upon two terms, TS and PV, and as many other terms lLini as there are components.