By Stefan Ihrig
Early in his profession, Adolf Hitler took notion from Benito Mussolini, his senior colleague in fascism—this truth is well known. yet an both very important position version for Hitler and the Nazis has been virtually fullyyt overlooked: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founding father of smooth Turkey. Stefan Ihrig’s compelling presentation of this untold tale gives you to rewrite our figuring out of the roots of Nazi ideology and strategy.
Hitler used to be deeply drawn to Turkish affairs after 1919. He not just widespread but additionally sought to mimic Atatürk’s radical building of a brand new country from the ashes of defeat in global warfare I. Hitler and the Nazis watched heavily as Atatürk defied the Western powers to grab govt, they usually modeled the Munich Putsch to a wide measure on Atatürk’s uprising in Ankara. Hitler later remarked that during the political aftermath of the nice conflict, Atatürk was once his grasp, he and Mussolini his students.
This was once no fading fascination. because the Nazis struggled throughout the Twenties, Atatürk remained Hitler’s “star within the darkness,” his concept for remaking Germany alongside nationalist, secular, totalitarian, and ethnically specific strains. Nor did it get away Hitler’s discover how ruthlessly Turkish governments had handled Armenian and Greek minorities, whom influential Nazis at once in comparison with German Jews. the recent Turkey, or not less than these points of it that the Nazis selected to work out, grew to become a version for Hitler’s plans and goals within the years major as much as the invasion of Poland.
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Additional info for Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination
101 At first the German papers were surprised at how stubbornly the Turkish delegation refused to concede on any points, even minor ones. 102 Atatürk’s prime military commander and head of the delegation at Lausanne had not received very much attention from the papers during the war; it was always the Turkish Führer who had stood in the limelight. Now Ismet Pasha became a major media star—next to Atatürk, of course, whose voice was still frequently “heard” in Germany. That at this point the Turks were still resisting Entente pressure for concessions impressed the nationalist press considerably.
But it posed a huge conceptual and ideological problem for the German nationalist papers. For most of their readers, the Soviet Union was an ideological enemy and a superthreat in the making. 43 One strategy the center to far-right papers employed was to simply downplay the Kemalist-Bolshevik connection. Especially in the early part of the war, they rarely, if ever, commented on developments in TurkishSoviet relations, and they kept reports on such matters to an absolute minimum. An example is an exceedingly short note on the Turkish-Soviet military treaty in early 1920.
Perhaps it will be resolved through the whispers of the relevant ministers? Oh, nonsense! Rubbish! ,’ said Bismarck. ” Kladderadatsch 40 (1922) 48 Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination How one can revise a peace treaty? As shown in the first three pictures, it was not through the deliberations of historians, diplomats, or politicians, but through “action,” that revision could be achieved, or “as the Turks did with Sèvres”—the Turk here, of course, depicted with sword in hand. ” As early as July 1919 the Weser Zeitung carried the article “Ex Oriente Lux .