Download Armenian Van Vaspurakan (UCLA Armenian History and Culture by Richard G. Hovannisian PDF

By Richard G. Hovannisian

The UCLA convention sequence «Historic Armenian towns and Provinces» has been equipped to discover the historic, political, cultural, spiritual, social, and fiscal legacy of a humans rooted at the Armenian Plateau for 3 millennia. Armenian Van/Vaspurakan is the 1st of the convention court cases to be released, in view of the truth that the realm round Lake Van is the cradle of Armenian civilization.

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When force weakened or was absent, people went their own way; when force increased, it was often met by resistance. The Imperial Paradigm and the Nation-­S tate In the imagination of Ottoman elites their sultan’s territories were the Well-­Protected Domains (Memalik-­i Mahruse) and later the Sublime Ottoman State (Devlet-­i Aliye-­i Osmaniye). 18 The capital lay between what cartographers had designated as Europe and Asia, the border being the narrow strait, the Bosphorus (Boğaziçi), and the name of the city changed from Byzantium to Constantinople and finally to Istanbul for Turkish speakers.

European and Ottoman non-­Muslim liberals applauded the Tanzimat’s egalitarian reforms and were frustrated by the government’s failure to fulfill its promises. There was a fundamental tension between the differentiation of Muslims and non-­Muslims, the latter’s subordination to the former, and the liberal universalist principles of equivalency and equality under the law. Conservative officials and men of religion balked at implementing decrees that they saw as subversive of God’s intent. Even those reformers who sincerely wanted to enact the reforms found that the state had limited ability to carry them out.

61 Like the overseas empires of the British and French and the contiguous land empire of the Russians, so the Ottomans proposed their own mission civilisatrice to bring the peripheries of their realm, the unsettled nomadic peoples, and other benighted subjects into the modern world. Self-­consciously borrowing and reproducing aspects of European nation-­states, the reformers aimed to bring the diverse peoples of the empire under a shared identity and greater central state authority. 62 This notion of legal protection of non-­Muslims was central to the aims of what came to be known as Ottomanism (osmanlılık) and was instituted briefly in the Constitution proclaimed in December 1876.

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