By Zeynep Yürekli
In response to a radical exam of structures, inscriptions, archival records and hagiographies, this e-book uncovers the political importance of Bektashi shrines within the Ottoman imperial age. It therefore offers a clean and accomplished account of the formative strategy of the Bektashi order, which began as a community of social teams that took factor with Ottoman imperial regulations within the overdue 15th century, was once counseled imperially as a part of Bayezid II's (r. 1481-1512) delicate strength coverage, and stored lower than money by means of imperial specialists because the Ottoman method of the Safavid clash hardened in the course of the remainder of the 16th century. This publication demonstrates that it was once a mix of 2 collective actions that validated the first parameters of Bektashi tradition from the overdue 15th century onwards. One was once the writing of Bektashi hagiographies; they associated hitherto unique social teams (such as wandering dervishes and warriors) with one another during the lives of old figures who have been their id markers (such because the saint Hac Bektas and the martyr Seyyid Gazi), whereas incorporating them into Ottoman historical past in inventive methods. the opposite one was once the architectural remodelling of the saints' shrines. by way of sort, imagery and content material, this interrelated literary and architectural output unearths a classy technique of negotiation with the imperial order and its cultural paradigms. tested in additional aspect within the ebook are the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hac Bektas and linked legends and hagiographies. notwithstanding confirmed as self sufficient associations in medieval Anatolia, they have been joined within the rising Bektashi community below the Ottomans, turned its significant centres and underwent radical architectural transformation, mostly lower than the patronage of raider commanders established within the Balkans. They therefore got here to occupy an middleman socio-political area among the Ottoman empire and its contestants within the 16th century.
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Extra info for Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age
Hence the effort to write alternative versions of Ottoman history centred on saints who had a large following among the rural population of the plateau that stretched between the two shrines, which was now known as the Ottoman ‘province (eyālet) of Karaman’. The principal architectural patrons who were responsible for the extensive remodelling of both shrines resided at the other end of the empire. They were members of military families based in the Balkans, and represented a significant social group devoted to the conduct of frontier warfare.
The designation of the period from the time of Mehmed II until the end of the seventeenth century as ‘the classical period’ was introduced by twentieth-century Turkish architectural historians but has since become an established convention in Turkish historiography of the Ottoman empire in general, presupposing a more or less linear progression of its state, institutions and culture. The customary periodization of Ottoman architecture is tripartite: the early Ottoman period (erken Osmanlı dönemi); the classical period (klâsik dönem); and the late Ottoman period (geç Osmanlı dönemi), alternatively known as the period of westernization (Batılılaşma dönemi).
1460), a descendant of shaykh Safiuddin (d. 1324), was exiled from his shrine in Ardabil by the Karakoyunlu ruler Jahanshah (r. circa 1438–67), he travelled to the west and asked Murad II (r. 12 The Ottoman ruler refused this request but neither he nor his grand vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha, who was consulted on the matter, could have guessed what a tremendous impact Junayd’s movement would have on the Ottoman state. The shaykh eventually found refuge with Turcoman tribes in Anatolia and was able to conscript many followers from among them, laying the foundations upon which his grandson Ismaʿil I (r.