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By R.K. Willardson and Albert C. Beer (Eds.)

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The resistivities thus obtained are in the 1-103 ohm-cm range with a positive temperature coefficient of resistivity for material with a room-temperature resistivity as high as 5 ohm-cm. Besides the problems of inhomogeneity and purity inherent with bulk techniques, there is one other major difficulty. Most practical devices, because of the thermal heat-sinking problem, must have at least one dimension of the active region on the order of 25 p or less. This is especially true for devices that are to be operated continuously.

This is especially true for devices that are to be operated continuously. Careful polishing of such thin layers can be done, but it is a tedious p r ~ c e d u r e . ^ The remainder of this section is a discussion of the major vapor-phase and liquid-phase techniques used for growing GaAs. The major chemical difficulty facing any vapor-phase epitaxial technique for growing GaAs is the transport of the gallium. Gallium itself has a very low vapor pressure at any reasonable temperature. Compounds of gallium that are gaseous at room temperature, such as Ga,H,, are unstable.

L 3 H. W. Thim and M. R. Barber, Proc. IEEE 56,110 (1968). 74 J. M. Woodall and J. F. Woods, Solid State Commun. 4, 33 (1966). 56 JOHN A. COPELAND AND STEPHEN KNIGHT TABLE I Transport systems Input source Input gases GaAs H , , H , O GaAs H,,HCI Hybrid systems Synthesis systems Ref. Input source Input gases Ref. Input source Input gases 80 79 Ga Ga As,O,,H, AsCI,,H, 82 Ga Ga H,, H,O, ASH, H,,HCl,AsH, GaCI,,AsCI,, H, (CH,),Ga,AsH,, H, etc. Ref. 81 84 high-resistivity bulk crystals (grown by the horizontal Bridgman method with Ga,O, added to the melt)75for times on the order of a few hours to a few weeks in a vacuum at 750-875°C.

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