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By Gail Mack

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Livestock are kept in cages that are housed in buildings where air, heating, cooling, feeding, and watering are controlled automatically by high-tech machines. The animals are identified by numbers. There is much debate over factory farms: Food production may be effi cient, but is there animal abuse? Are factory farms, with their huge output, necessary because of growing world population? How do they affect the environment—is animal waste polluting land and water? What are the health risks for humans and for the animals?

Hughes says that these diseases may lead to new AIDS-type epidemics and costs borne by other patients if resources are moved from other types of medical research to finance xenotransplantation. If this happens, says Hughes, it takes the ethics of xenotransplantation out of the realm of individual consent and into the realm of justice. For example, just how permissible is it for one person to put others at risk for his or her own benefit? The risk of a major new epidemic is extremely grave, and its likelihood is difficult if not impossible to quantify.

Primary emotions—there are six of them— are basic feelings that do not require conscious thought: they are like automatic refl exes. These six universal emotions were identified by Charles Darwin, who was the fi rst scientist to study animal emotions systematically. In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, published in 1872, he wrote that animals could feel the primary emotions: fear, disgust, anger, surprise, sadness, and happiness. Do animals have emotions? Two orangutans hug each other in Malaysia.

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