Download AGNOSTOID BIOSTRATIGRAPHY ACROSS THE MIDDLE-UPPER CAMBRIAN by Shanchi Peng; Richard A Robison PDF

By Shanchi Peng; Richard A Robison

Many trilobite species of the order Agnostida have brief stratigraphic levels and worldwide distribution in open-marine deposits. they're so much considerable and such a lot varied from concerning the center heart Cambrian to the center top Cambrian the place they're proving to be very good biostratigraphic indices. We describe surprisingly wealthy agnostoid faunas of that age from thick, well-exposed sections, one close to Paibi and one close to Wangcun, in northwestern Hunan Province, China. All collections are from the Huaqiao Formation, the definition of that is revised and its stratigraphic content material is improved. many of the fossils are good preserved in darkish, laminated, argillaceous carbonates that have been deposited in reduce slope environments. those are assigned to seventy six species and 33 genera. New species defined are Agnostus? babcocki, Ammagnostus? cryptus, Ammagnostus histus, Ammagnostus hunanensis, Ammagnostus wangcunensis, Baltagnostus? ambonus, Linguagnostus stenus, Lisogoragnostus hybus, Lisogoragnostus mictus, and Utagnostus songae. Species reassigned in a brand new wide-spread mixture are Ammagnostus laiwuensis (Lorenz, 1906), Glaberagnostus? cicer (Tullberg, 1880), Kormagnostus minutus (Schrank, 1975), and Pseudophalacroma scanense (Westergård, 1946). The subfamily Ammagnostinae Öpik, 1967, is increased to relatives rank.  Read more...

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When Alexander the Great in 329 bce conquered “Marakanda,” as the Greeks called it, it was already a thriving city. Narshakhî, writing in the 940s his History of Bukhara, another great city of the region, claimed that its citadel was founded 3,000 years earlier. Urban and agrarian Central Asia distinguished between different social orders, aristocrats and commoners. When Turkic-speaking nomads replaced the earlier Iranian nomads, from the third to fourth century onwards, a linguistic divide was added.

Muslim geographers and historians from the ninth to tenth centuries describe these towns, including their stout walls, gates, the distances between them, and the roads leading to them. They also highlight mosques and other religious or cultural structures and local products, all matters of considerable interest to the readers of that day. Archaeologists have been carrying out investigations of cities such as Bukhara, Samarkand, and Tashkent (earlier called Chach) for many years. Travelers’ accounts also give some information about their size.

Armed now with Zhang Qian’s knowledge, Han campaigns between 127 and 119 bce penetrated deep into Central Asia. China gained control of the Ordos and sent settlers to secure the region. Han armies took Gansu and advanced as far as Lake Baikal. Mindful of the risks of prolonged warfare in the steppe, China turned to diplomacy and in 115 bce again dispatched Zhang Qian, the most important intelligence operative of his day. His mission was to win over Central Asian tribes, like the Wusun, to make common cause with China against the Xiongnu.

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