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Heterocyclic Supramolecules II

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1999). Research has also shown that the SO4 ions in ettringite are replaced with CO3 ions when ground limestone filler is present (Pera et al. 1999). Limestone filler increases the density of the paste, which is particularly important in improving the strength and transport properties in the interfacial transition zone. In cases where limestone filler reduces compressive strength, especially at relatively high cement replacement rates, the improvement in workability may permit the reduction in water content to offset the decrease in strength (Ghezal and Khayat 2002).

35) where x is cubic feet of water per sack of cement, a is absolute volume of cement in cubic feet per sack, ws is the specific weight of aggregate in pounds per cubic foot of absolute volume, w is the unit weight of aggregate in pounds per cubic foot of dry-rodded mixed aggregate, S is the aggregate surface area in square foot per cubic foot of dry-rodded mixed aggregate (neglecting the amount passing a No. 100 sieve), and N is the cubic feet of dry-rodded mixed aggregate per sack of cement. To use the equation, the water-cement ratio is selected for a given strength and the workability factor K is selected for the desired workability at that water-cement ratio.

It must be noted however, that a small change in sand content does not generally result in a large change in packing density. The use of a higher volume fraction of aggregate—especially coarse aggregate—can result in improvements in strength, stiffness, creep, drying shrinkage, and permeability (Johansen and Andersen 1991). The use of higher packing density with continuous grading and a narrow grading span results in reduced segregation (de Larrard 1999a). According to Hudson (2002), the difference in voids for the available aggregates in the same geographical region is about 3 to 6 percent.

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