Download A Simplified Grammar of the Ottoman-Turkish Language by James W. Redhouse PDF

By James W. Redhouse

The Ottoman Language is the main hugely polished department of the good Turkish tongue, that is spokon, with dialectic adaptations, around the entire breadth, approximately, of the center sector of the continent of Asia, impinging into Europe, even, within the Ottoman provinces, and likewise, in Southern Russia, as much as the frontiers of the previous state of Poland. The Ottoman language is, in its grammar and vocabulary, essentially Turkish. It has, even though, followed, and keeps progressively more to undertake, as required, an unlimited variety of Arabic, Porsian, and overseas phrases (Greek, Armenian, Slavonic, Hungarian, Italian, French, English, etc.), including using the various grammatical principles of the Arabic and Porsian, that are given as Turkish ideas within the following pages, their beginning being in every one case precise. the nice Turkish language, turkje, Ottoman and non-Ottoman, has been classed, by means of eu writers as one of many " agglutinative" languages ; no longer inflTable of Contents Preface ; observe on id of Alphabets xii; bankruptcy I Letters and ORTnooiurnr; part I quantity, Order, Forma, and Names of; Letters 1; Synopsis of Arabic, Greek, and Latin; Letters four; ? II Phonetic Values of Letters, Vowel-Points, Orthographic symptoms, Transliteration, Ottoman Euphony 15; bankruptcy IL Ottoman Accidence; part I Nouns substantial fifty one; ? II Nouns Adjective GS; ? III Numerals seventy four; , IV Pronouns eighty two; vi; desk of contents; part V Demonstratives 8b; ? VI Interrogatives 89; ? VII Relative Pronouns ninety; ? VIIIDerivation of Verbs ninety two; (Table) ninety four; ? IX Conjugation of Verbs ; Moods; Tenses ;; Participles; Verbal Nouns; Gerunds ninety nine; ? X Numbers aiul Tersons one hundred fifteen ? XI complicated different types of Verbs , 119; ? XII First complicated classification one hundred twenty ? XIII moment ? ? a hundred twenty five; ? XIV 3rd ? 129; ? XV mixed (Turkish) Conjugation 133; ? XVI destructive and Impotential Conjugations , a hundred thirty five; ? XVII Dubitative, power, and Facile Verbs 141; ? XVII I Verb considerable a hundred and forty four; ?

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The acceleration of the northward expansion of the cAnaza was partly the result of natural calamities. The great drought of 1756, followed by extreme cold in winter, caused many tribes to look beyond their traditional pastures and may well have caused the acceleration of the tribal shift. 37 Badly protected as they were against severe cold, many casualties occurred among the carab. 38 By the middle of the eighteenth century, it was most likely common knowledge in northern Arabia that the prospects for grazing in Syria were favourable.

However, they did offer logistical support for the largest Wahhaˆ bıˆ raids on the Damascus area in 1809 and 1810 ‘. . 43 They made their presence felt in the course of the 1770s when they regularly clashed with the Mawaˆ lıˆ. The Mawaˆ lıˆ lost part of their traditional pastures and were driven with their animals to more marginal pastures or to partly cultivated areas, especially to the north of Hama, the Aclaˆ and Zaˆ wiya hills. In 1786 the Mawaˆ lıˆ revolted and attacked scores of villages all over the area, including the foothills of the Nus*ayrıˆ Mountains.

A man from the H * asana had gone to the village of Tallsikkıˆn in order to collect the khuwwa due to him and was killed by an officer while doing so. His uncle appealed to the court and, being the sole heir, received a compensation for the death of his cousin, see SMH 43, p. 53, 1 Dhuˆ al-H * ijja 1238 46 Ghazzıˆ, Kitaˆ b, vol. 3, p. 250 47 The H * asana were sharqiyya and in winter they took their herds far into the Syrian desert, possibly as far as northern Arabia 48 Lewis, Nomads, pp. 8–12 49 Burckhardt, Notes, vol.

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