By Andrew McGregor
Egypt has one of many oldest civilizations and proudest nationwide histories on this planet, yet so much army histories deal with it as an insignificant battleground for different nice imperial powers akin to the Ottoman Empire, the French, and the British. In a full of life and stirring narrative, this paintings tells the untold tale of the Egyptian adventure. It seems on the lives of Egyptian squaddies battling at domestic and in another country, and indicates the jobs these infantrymen and their leaders have performed in Middle-Eastern and international heritage for 500 years—especially within the convulsions that experience reworked the Muslim global up to now centuries.Beginning with an outline of Egypt's historic and medieval history, the ebook then explores Ottoman army rule, explaining how a tiny Turkish-speaking minority maintained absolute energy by means of conserving army wisdom out of the seize of local Egyptians. Readers will see how Napoleon's failed Egyptian crusade of 1798 brought the state to Europe yet, extra vital, introduced sleek Western affects to Egypt. through the nineteenth century, new palms and strategies and the emerging strength of nationalism remodeled Egypt because the empire of the Ottoman Turks slowly decayed. Independence was once thwarted via the British, who took over the rustic within the Eighteen Eighties to safe hyperlinks to India. but the British prepared the ground for independence, retraining and strengthening the Egyptian army to make it the most powerful and so much nationalist strength within the state. eventually, McGregor's last chapters examine Arab nationalism, and on the Egyptian military within the wars of the overdue twentieth century.
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Additional info for A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War
War with Ghazi Hassan Pasha: 1786–1787 The Ottoman sultan had not forgotten the tribute payments missed during the rule of ‘Ali Bey and Abu al-Dhahab and in 1786 sent Admiral Ghazi Hassan Pasha with a fleet to Alexandria to collect. A large part of Ghazi Hassan’s army was composed of Muslim Albanians, who would become an important element in Egyptian politics for the next three decades. The two leading Mamluk Beys, Murad and Ibrahim, attempted to resist the admiral’s army, but were defeated at al-Rahmaniya in the Delta.
Once inside the city, Salim’s Janissaries picked their way through the streets slowly, all the time exposed to a hail of rocks and other objects hurled by women and children from the upper stories of their dwellings. Enraged by the resistance they now fell upon every house, slaughtering everyone they came across. For three days the Janissaries went wild, inflicting a terrible retribution on the Cairenes. Tumanbay, however, was far from defeated. He rallied the dispersed Mamluks and convinced the Bedouin to join his cause.
The new governor, Mustafa Pasha, was the brother-in-law of Sultan Sulayman (“the Magnificent”). The leaders of the revolt were Janim al-Sayfi and Inal, governors of Middle Egypt and the western Delta, respectively. A prominent envoy was sent to Inal with an amnesty before things got out of control, but a defiant Inal had the man beheaded. Fearing that some of his Mamluks might be tempted to join the rebels, Mustafa Pasha assembled a force solely from his Ottoman troops and destroyed the rebels and their Bedouin allies in battle, killing Janim al-Sayfi.