By National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board.; National Cooperative Highway Research Program.; American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.; United States. Federal Highway Administration.; Advanced Asphalt Technol
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Additional info for A manual for design of hot mix asphalt with commentary
Table 4-9 summarizes the requirements for the sand equivalent test. Table 4-8. Criteria for flat and elongated particles. 3 to < 3 3 to < 10 10 to < 30 30 or more Maximum Percentage of Flat and Elongated Particles at 5:1 --10 10 10 10 Criteria are presented as percent flat and elongated particles by mass. Aggregates graduated cylinder sand plus clay reading flocculating solution suspended clay sand reading settled aggregate Figure 4-10. Sand equivalent test. Source Aggregate Properties Some aggregate properties were identiﬁed by the expert group as important, but about which a consensus could not be reached on speciﬁcation limits.
Care should however be used in selecting binders that are much stiffer than required for a given application. Recently, many highway agencies have noticed an increase in surface cracking in HMA pavements. Although such top-down cracking is not yet fully understood, using unnecessarily stiff binders may contribute to the problem. Additional details concerning the selection of asphalt binders for HMA mixtures are given in Chapter 8 of this manual. Bibliography AASHTO Standards M 320, Performance-Graded Asphalt Binder M 323, Superpave Volumetric Mix Design PP 42, Determination of Low-Temperature Performance Grade (PG) of Asphalt Binders R 28, Accelerated Aging of Asphalt Binder Using a Pressurized Aging Vessel (PAV) R 29, Grading or Verifying the Performance Grade of an Asphalt Binder R 35, Superpave Volumetric Design for Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) T 48, Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup T 49, Penetration of Bituminous Materials T 51, Ductility of Bituminous Materials T 53, Softening Point of Bitumen (Ring-and-Ball Apparatus) T 202, Viscosity of Asphalts by Vacuum Capillary Viscometer T 240, Effect of Heat and Air on a Moving Film of Asphalt (Rolling Thin-Film Oven Test) T 313, Determining the Flexural Creep Stiffness of Asphalt Binder Using the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) Asphalt Binders T 314, Determining the Fracture Properties of Asphalt Binder in Direct Tension (DT) T 315, Determining the Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder Using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) T 316, Viscosity Determination of Asphalt Binder Using Rotational Viscometer Other Publications The Asphalt Institute, Asphalt Binder Test Manual (MS-25).
Source Aggregate Properties Some aggregate properties were identiﬁed by the expert group as important, but about which a consensus could not be reached on speciﬁcation limits.