By Amrit Rai
This linguistic learn investigates the beginning of the language Hindi/Hindavi and the complicated reasons which resulted in its department into separate tongues - smooth Hindi and smooth Urdu.
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Extra resources for A house divided : the origin and development of Hindi/Hindavi
Significantly, all three mandarinates had them. In the 1800s alone, unsuccessful students-turned-rebels included Hong Kyongnae in Korea in 1811, the Taiping Heavenly King in China in the 1840s and 1850s, and the flamboyant poet Cao Ba Quat in Vietnam in 1854. The examinations themselves provided a common classical basis for thinking of rebellion. Shared political quest myths and their risk-justifying formulas echoed across the rice fields all the way from tenth-century Korea to nineteenth-century Vietnam, put into circulation by the common examination curricula.
In this respect they can be compared to polities elsewhere with split personalities, like the Western countries that for a long time combined doctrines of universal rights with institutionalized racial prejudice. All three mandarinates entertained a strong nostalgia for a more feudal society in which there were stricter, more comfortable consistencies of social status with political position and military power. ) One of the three mandarinates, Korea, went beyond nostalgia. 17 To adapt Jean Cocteau’s facetious definition of the French (as being just Italians in a bad mood), it could be said that the Chinese and Vietnamese were Koreans in a less aristocratic mood.
Even Vietnam, six centuries ago, drawing upon a repertoire also familiar in Chinese and Korean politics, was anticipating the psychological bases of the governance of, for example, modern universities (temporal cycles of tenure achievement and promotion) or business corporations (timed promotions and grantings of stock options). 29 It could be added that the supersession of natural time by bureaucratic time had also begun in the mandarinates, pluralistic as they were, and not excluding those polities small enough for refeudalization to continue to seem a realistic option.